Bi products are the only high-quality, target-oriented bacterial preparations available on the Polish market, based on singular, carefully selected micro-organism strains.
Thanks to micro-biological processes, atmospheric nitrogen becomes included in organic compounds of plant cells. Organic compounds present in organic residuals are mineralised by microbes and discharged to the atmosphere. Nitrogen fixing by bacteria living in soil or symbiotic (Rhizobium) is carried out on a similar principle. This is a reduction of atmospheric N2 into NH4 due to enzymes produced by bacteria. It is known that nitrogen bacteria may fix even up to 50 kilogrammes of nitrogen per 1 hectare of arable area. Such nitrogen in an assimilable by other organisms form (ammonium compounds, proteins) may further circulate in the biosphere. Bacillus azotofixans is a perfect example of a nitrogen bacteria naturally present within soil. Intensively used soils with low humus content may note a plummet in these micro-organisms content by even several dozen percent. Artificial fertilizers, herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, and adverse environmental conditions all contribute to this phenomenon. Application of Bacillus azotofixans bacteria to soil in spring helps in restoring the population of these beneficial bacteria. Application of 1 kilogramme of bi azot preparation (with a high bacteria content 1x109CFU/g) containing this bacterium helps to improve circulation of nitrogen within soil and to systematically provide plants with assimilable nitrogen forms which prevent nitrates from accumulating within plants. Scientific sources indicate that application of 1 kilogramme of bi azot (the preparation contains appropriate content of Azotobacter azotofixans bacteria) allows to obtain 30-40 kilogrammes of pure nitrogen per hectare during the vegetation period. Application of the preparation in autumn on post-harvesting remains aids in organic matter decomposition as the bacteria provide nitrogen continuously and not once, as in the case of nitrogen fertilizer. This way bacteria support humus production and provide plants with nutrients.
Similarly to nitrogen, phosphorus takes part in all life processes within a plant. It is necessary for a proper photosynthesis process, aspiration, metabolic processes, and particularly for the creation of protein and reserve materials (fats, phytin). The lack of phosphorus causes severe disturbances to a plant’s basic life functions, resulting in compromised development and functioning of particular organs, especially a plant's root system.
Phosphorus is obtained from soil by plants only in the form of ions of phosphoric acid (V). Alas, soils with low or very low assimilable phosphorus content constitute 40% of all soils in our country. Therefore, the activity of bacteria (such as Bacillus megaterium) which dissolve phosphates, also referred to as Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB), is invaluable. These are beneficial bacteria capable of hydrolysis of organic and non-organic insoluble phosphorus compounds. The solubilization of mineralised phosphate mechanism is connected to discharging of organic acids to the soil by the bacteria. The organic acids digest phosphate salts which prove difficult to dissolve. The PSB may also produce phosphatase which hydrolises organic forms of phosphate compounds. The PSB are included in Phosphate Solubilizing Micro-organisms. This group also covers fungi and antibacteria.
Aside of assimilable phosporus, the PSM introduce the soil with such substances as: siderophores, auxins, cytokines, and vitamis. Therefore, in recent years, strains of phosphoric micro-organisms have been considered so-called biofertilizer. The PSM constitute a crucial factor in agricultural production optimisation.
Phosphorus deficit manifests as purple discolouration on stems and petioles, and sometimes even underneath leaves. Phosphorus deficit most commonly manifests in young plants in their initial growth and development stages (particularly in maize).
The PSM include ‘super bacteria’ Bacillus megaterium which, when used in spring, increases the soil content of phosphorus assimilable by plants. Bi fosfor preparation contains large amounts of Bacillus megaterium strains (1 x 109 CFU / g) and when applied with 0.5-1 kg/ha, allows to obtain 20-40 kilogramme of pure phosphorus per hectare.
Bacillus subtilis bacteria, also known as hay bacillus, is commonly present in the soil in our climate zone. It is a saprophyte which decomposes organic plant matter (mostly carbohydrates and pectins). Additionally, the bacterium produces such peptide antibiotics as polymyxin B and subtilin, as well as amino acids, polysaccharides – insulin and enzymes like amylase and protease. It also creates siderophores (bacillibactin) which are capable of iron ion binding, whereas its presence near plant roots may protect them against multiple pathogens by binding all available iron forms into chelate compounds and taking it away from pathogens. The bacteria’s protein contains a surfactant hydrophobin BsIA, reduces surface tension and hence, increases the moisture of a surface on which bacteria are present, as a result increasing moisture within root system, covering it with an additional protective layer (this is particularly important during droughts), and stabilising soil colloids. Aside from contributing to the soil structure, this bacterium has another, valuable to any farmer, feature – it reduces the number of pathogenic fungi and bacteria in soil, thus increasing phytosanitary conditions in crops.
Bacillus subtilis is also a fast replicating bacterium, therefore it naturally eliminates other pathogens due to increased food and space demands, not disturbing, but even improving the development of beneficial micro-organisms present in the soil. Bacteria included in bi preparations are indispensable for spring- and autumn-time farming practices. Scientific research indicates a positive impact of Bacillus subtilis on development of such beneficial soil micro-organisms as carbon-processing bacteria, nitrogen bacteria, phosphorus bacteria, actinobacteria, and saprophytic fungi. The research indicates over a double increase of the presence of vegetative (active) state bacteria following the application of preparations containing Bacillus subtilis. Providing plants with mineral compounds constitutes a key factor of all changes within the soil. To fulfil this goal, certain bacteria which facilitate and support this process are necessary; Bacillus subtilis is one of them.
High content of bacteria in preparation (5 x 109 CFU/g) is also worth mentioning – this is the only such preparation available on the market.
The effectiveness of bi preparation has been confirmed by long-term research. Experiments carried out at research centres (the University of Agriculture in Kraków, Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation in Puławy, Institute of Plant Protection in Poznań) and farmers’ and gardener’s experience throughout the whole country confirmed the positive impact of Bacillus subtilis on plant health and yield quality and quantity. Also, global studies indicate that Bacillus subtilis reduces the incidence of such pathogens like Fusarium, Sclerotinia, Plasmidophora, Pythium, DSR, Blumeria, Puccinia, Phyrenophora, Botrytis, Alternaria, Rhizoctonia, Cercospora.
Bi protect preparation content of Bacillus subtilis was tested by the Polish Society of Ecological Engineering, and its efficiency was examined by an Expert of the Polska Izba Ekologii and Institute of Biology and Biotechnology in Kraków.