Soya is becoming more common in cultivation in Poland. It is due to growing varieties of a relatively short vegetation period that the cultivation of this species became possible in our country.
High thermal requirements successfully hamper its cultivation. It is easily damaged by frost since the moment of its sowing, up to the peak of germination. Besides, it requires large quantities of heat to blossom.
Soya features a well-developed root system, hence its resistance to droughts. Water losses are reduced due to plant’s trichomes and its heliotropism ability. It means that separate leaves can move in sync with changing lightening. Hence three positions of soya leaves: day, night and noon. In noon position, leaves are parallel against the light flux and face it with the lowest area possible. Such a position occurs during periods of high temperature and intensive sunlight when the soil lacks water.
Soya detests compact and acidic soils; neutral soils with pH = 6-7 are most favourable.
Soya has large nutritious requirements, hence the necessity of intensive mineral fertilization. Approximately 40 kg of nitrogen, 60-80 kg of phosphorus and 120-160 kg of potassium is applied to one hectare of land. Nitrogen should be applied only once, at the beginning of cultivation; in later stages a plant grows nodules with symbiotic bacteria which provide it with nitrogen. Soya requires grafting with Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteria as these bacteria are non-existent in Polish soils, and therefore, a symbiosis would not be possible. Bi soya, an AGRARIUS product, is a recommended graft for this purpose.
A micro-element fertilizer soler L is also advised.